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Mountains Beyond Mountains

A Bibliography for Mountains Beyond Mountains by Tracy Kidder

Selected by Sarah Prindle, class of '07
"Paul is model of what should be done. He's not a model for how it has to be done. Let's celebrate him. Let's make sure people are inspired by him."  Jim Kim in Mountains Beyond Mountains p.244   

Aristide, Farmer and Virchow
Aristide, Jean-Bertrand. In the Parish of the Poor: Writings from Haiti. 
BX4705 .A7235 A3 1990
Amy Wilentz, author of The Rainy Season, translates and introduces this book. Aristide uses this book to speak to the Haitian people. The first chapter is titled "A Letter to My Brothers and Sisters." Aristide tells the story of Haiti in his own voice, empathizes with his people, and discusses the way of hope. The book also collects Aristide's sermons and messages, providing a first hand understanding of his romance with the Haitian people.

Dreifus, Claudia. "Healing the World by Curing the Poor: A Conversation with Paul Farmer." The New York Times 5 Jul. 2005. 8 Aug. 2005 <web.lexis-nexis.com/universe>. 
This interview was held recently in July when Farmer was in Boston. In the interview he is asked what Albert Schweitzer might think of his work, what effect technology has had on work in Haiti and what he does when he gets tired and angry. 

Farmer, Paul. AIDS and Accusation: Haiti and the Geography of Blame. 
RA644 .A25 F37 1992
Farmer examines the history of Haiti and of the first known cases of AIDS in Haiti and Haitian immigrants to America. He explains the cultural, racial and economic reasons for the strong impact of AIDS on Haiti. His investigation looks at the ways in which misconceptions about Haitians formed, and how data does not support the introduction of AIDS to the United States from Haiti.

---. Infections and Inequalities: The Modern Plagues. EBOOK
Farmer's third book explores the role of social inequity in causing tuberculosis throughout history and in poor countries today. TB plagues countries like Haiti and Peru, and multi-drug-resistant TB has been created by inefficient treatment in these areas. Farmer notes that economists hold human life to be less valuable in poor countries than in rich ones, and this thought must be changed to treat TB in poor countries now, before drug-resistant strains plague both developed and undeveloped countries.

---. Pathologies of Power: Health, Human Rights, and the New War on the Poor.
HM821 .F37 2005
Farmer's fourth book is a contemplation of the importance of the most basic human rights: food, health, and shelter. The first part of the book is an argument for these rights based on his personal experience in Haiti, Cuba, Mexico, Siberia, and Boston. The second part is a theoretical argument for supplying these basic human rights to every person in every country. This is Farmer's most universal and arguably his most important book.

--. The Uses of Haiti. 
F1928 .2 .F36 1994 & 2003
This is Farmer's history of Haiti: the imperialism it has been subjected to under European power and American influence; the series of dictators and natural disasters that have made the Haitian people some of the poorest in the world; the epidemics which now trouble the small country. Farmer pulls no punches as to who is at fault for Haiti's dire state. He encourages Americans to stop seeing Haiti as unfortunate and unsightly, and see the people who deserve justice.

Farmer, Paul and David Walton. "Condoms, Coups, and the Ideology of Prevention: Facing Failure in Rural Haiti." Catholic Ethicists on HIV/AIDS Prevention. Ed. James F. Keenan. 
RA644 .A25 C376 2000
The book is an overview on the Catholic stance on the prevention of HIV/AIDS. Farmer's chapter emphasizes that gender inequality and social inequity are at the root of Haiti's growing HIV/AIDS problem and notes that these must be remedied along with encouraging condom use in order to treat this epidemic.

Rise, Guenter B. "Virchow, Rudolf Carl." Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 30-44. 
Ref Q141 .D5 v. 14
A biography of German's most renowned doctor in the 19th century with a bibliography of his publications, lectures, essays, speeches, anthropological writings, and secondary sources.

Simmons, John Galbriath. "Rudolf Virchow: The Scope of Modern Medicine: Cellular and Social." Doctors and Discoveries: Lives that Created Today's Medicine. 9-13. 
R134.5 .S56 2002
Simmons gives a six page introduction to Virchow's life and work. Virchow asserted that cells are the basic unit of life, and that they reproduce through division. He also recognized that diseases like typhoid and tuberculosis are the product of social conditions such as poor sanitation. Virchow, who was quoted as saying that "doctors are natural attorneys for the poor," was a role model for Paul Farmer.

Art, Poetry & Literature of Haiti , 
Alexis, Jacques Stephen. General Sun, My Brother: A Novel.
PQ3949 .A34 C6613 1999
First published in French and recently available in English. It concerns the 1937 Massacre of Haitian sugar cutters who lived in the Dominican Republic under the Trujillos.

Bell, Beverly. Walking on Fire: Haitian Women's Stories of Survival and Resistance.
HQ1511 .B45 2002
Beverly Bell, founder and director of the Center for Economic Justice in Albuquerque and former liaison 
to President Aristide, collects interviews and spoken word essays of women who lived revolutionary lives because they had no choice. Bell collects stories of resistance in an effort to bat teneb, or beat back the darkness, the label of hopeless that has been put on Haiti. Bell's collection allows Haitian women to defy victim status and use their strength to give hope to the story of Haiti.

Campbell, Elaine and Pierrette Frickey, eds. The Whistling Bird: Women Writers of the Caribbean. 
PN849 .C32 W45 1998
Poetry and prose works by women in 13 Caribbean countries. Themes are relationships, village vs. city life, education, and issues of race. "Night Women," by Danticat represents Haiti.

Chancy, Myriam J. A. Framing Silence: Revolutionary Novels by Haitian Women. 
PQ3944 C47 1997
Chancy uses literary criticism to discover the Haitian novelists who are revolutionary by virtue of being among five of the fifteen female Haitian novelists ever published. Chancy analyzes five works by Haitian women while discussing the political climate in Haiti in the twentieth century and putting the feminism and ideology of these novels into the context of Haitian culture. Works looked at include Edwidge Danticat's Breath, Eyes, Memory and the novels of Marie Chaivet and Jan J. Dominique.

Clitandre, Pierre. Cathedral of the August Heat. 
PQ3949 .2 .C58 C313 1987
Clitandre is a writer, painter, and anti-Duvalier journalist whose work describes contemporary Haiti through the eyes of its poor. Clitandre was exiled under the Duvaliers and worked with the Haitian community in New York during his exile. His novel explores religion, folklore, the extreme poverty and ultimately an uprising.

Danticat, Edwidge. Breath, Eyes, Memory. 
PZ4 .D3674 Br 1998
This story is told through the eyes of twelve year old Sophie, who grows up in Haiti, and later moves to New York to live with her mother. Sophie learns what it means to be Haitian in America, and upon returning for a visit to Haiti, she learn what it means to be a woman in Haiti. The book is somewhat autobiographical and was chosen for Oprah's Book Club.

Danticat, Edwidge. The Butterfly's Way: Voices from the Haitian Dyaspora in the United States. 
PS508 .H33 B88 2001
A collection of stories by and about Haitian-Americans is edited by Haiti's foremost contemporary writer, Edwidge Danticat. Danticat collects poems, essays, and stories about the "dyaspora" from Haiti- "dyaspora" meaning the ideological connection between Haitians who leave and those who stay. The stories and poems explore childhood in Haiti and abroad, migration from home, the first generation living in the US, the return home, and the future.

---. The Farming of Bones. 
PZ4.D3674 Fa 1998
Danticat renders intimate the untold story of the 1937 slaughter of 35,000 Haitian migrant workers at the Dominican border. The massacre was part of the nationalist movement in the Dominican Republic to 'de-Africanize' its borders. The novel uses a love story to make understandable the forces at work in Haitian life: the cycle of political and natural disasters, the struggle of race and national identity.

---. Danticat, Edwidge. Krik? Krak! 
PZ4.D3674 Kr 1995
Danticat's second book is a collection of nine short stories that was nominated for the National Book Award in 1995. Each story tells a different narrative of Haiti: some of mother and daughter relationships, some of Haitian traditions, and others of the brutality of rulers and how Haitians transcend the physical through their imaginations.

Desquiron, Lilas. Reflections of Loko Miwa: A Novel. 
PQ3949 .2 .D445 C4813 1998
A story of two women, one born as a peasant but brought up as a servant in an upper class home with the daughter of the house. The novel is set during the time of Duvalier and reveals Haitian religious and cultural beliefs.

Greene, Graham. The Comedians. 
PZ3 .G8319 Cm 1976
A farce about Haiti under the rule of the Duvaliers and "Papa Doc." Greene uses characterizations of real people living in the political community at the time. He portrays the dangerous and fascinating culture of Haiti and the strange climate of the country during political oppression and upheaval.

Laferriere, Dany. Dining with the Dictator. Trans. David Homel. 
PQ3919 .2 .L162 G6813
A picture of Haiti through the eyes of Laferriere, a Haitian journalist who was exiled under the Duvalier's rule. A young boy seeks refuge from the Tontons Macoutes, Haiti's infamous military police under the Duvaliers, in the house of a prostitute. He learns about the politics of gender and sex in a time of political oppression.

Louis, Liliane Nérette. When Night Falls, Kric! Krac!: Haitian Folktales. 
A rich collection of Haitian folk tales with traditional recipes and a Krey-English glossary.

Manuel, Peter. Caribbean Currents: Caribbean Music from Rhumba to Reggae.
ML3565 .M36 1995
Chapter 6 discusses the many varieties of music in Haiti and the French Caribbean.

Rodman, Selden. The Miracle of Haitian Art. 
N6606 .R62
This is an earlier collection of Haitian Art by the author of Where Art is Joy. Selden was the first to publish a book about Haitian art, Renaissance in Haiti, and served as a co-director for Port-au-Prince's Centre D'Art from 1949-51. This book catalogues artists of Haiti's "renaissance" in the early to mid-twentieth century. 

Rodman, Seldon. Where Art is Joy. 
N6606.5 .P74 R64 1988
This book includes artwork from Haiti's early folk art to its modernist and impressionist artists. The works come from the Centre D'Art in Port-au-Prince. The collection includes the murals of voodoo priest Hector Hyppolite, traditional sculptures out of wood, stone, and papier-mâché, and anti-Duvalier Cubist works by modern Haitian painters. 

Roumain, Jacques. Masters of the Dew. Trans. Langston Hughes and Mercer Cook. 
PQ3949 .R73 G613
This novel of peasant life is authored by the founder of the Haitian Communist Party, Jacques Roumain, a son of a wealthy Haitian family who studied and worked for the peasant classes in Haiti until his death in 1944. The book is the story of a peasant bringing hope and solidarity for Cuba to the drought and poverty stricken people of a Haitian village.

Shapiro, Norman R., trans. and ed. Negritude: Black Poetry From Africa and the Caribbean. 
PQ3986 .Z5 E58
This book collects works of black, francophone poets from Central America, the Caribbean islands, and Africa. Eleven Haitian poets who write of love, life, third world status, politics, and history are included; their poems are printed side by side in both French Creole and English.

Stebich, Ute. Haitian Art. 
N6606 .H34
This collection of Haitian art and craft gives a piece by piece discussion of the inspiration and influences of the nearly 50 artists included. Some plates are color, most are black and white, and a few pieces of early Haitian sculpture are included. Stebich is a curator for the Haitian Art collection at the Milwaukee Art Center, and the works shown here were exhibited at the Brooklyn Museum and the New Orleans Museum of Art.

The Culture of Responsibility 
Chomsky, Noam, Paul Farmer and Amy Goodman. 
Getting Haiti Right This Time: The U.S. and the Coup
E183.8 .H2 C47 2004
Chomsky collects articles and interviews about the February 2004 forced removal of President Aristide from power by a supposedly US supported militia. This militia was composed of members of the military which patrolled the country for the government which preceded Aristide. Farmer, Chomsky, Aristide, and several US representatives comment on the US's involvement in the coup and how America could assist to get Haiti "right this time.

Kumar, Chetan. Building Peace in Haiti. 
JZ4997 .5 .H2 K86 1998
Kumar provides an outline of Haiti's turbulent past and describes how the past must be understood to create a plan for peace for Haiti in the future. Kumar covers Haiti's past from Independence to the Duvaliers to the present and discusses what the UN has done in its efforts to stabilize Haiti. Kumar concludes that in order to bring peace to Haiti, the stratification between rich and poor must be bridged in a real and lasting way.

Moore, Jonathan, ed. Hard Choices: Moral Dilemmas in Humanitarian Intervention. 
HV639 .H37 1998
Hard Choices presents the complexities of humanitarian intervention; its sometimes damaging effects and all the factors that must be taken into account in international aid. Topics presented include: 'The Challenge of the HIV Epidemic," "Military-Humanitarian Ambiguities in Haiti," "The Morality of Sanctions," and "Television and Humanitarian Aid." This is an excellent source for understanding all the issues that arise in international aid and military intervention.

Seligson, Mitchell A. and John T. Passé-Smith. Development and Underdevelopment: The Political Economy of Global Inequality. 
HC59.7 .D4453 2003
Seligson provides a thorough understanding of the political differences between developing economies and industrialized ones. The book also includes information on the effect of globalization in hindering or helping both economies with growth. This is a good source for understanding how developed economies thrive and undeveloped economies fail due to global inequality.

World Association of Non-governmental Organizations. Conference. Culture of Responsibility and the Role of NGOs.
HN3 .W383 2002
NGOs or non-governmental organizations, like Partners in Health, are making a huge impact on the problems that seem overwhelming in our world today: human rights, the environment, education, health, and many more. This book collects essays that argue for the role NGOs play, allowing individuals to join the "culture of responsibility" and help solve the injustices they see. Essays provide arguments for NGOs over governmental organizations, resources for NGOs, as well as a discussion of the relationships between NGOs and the United Nations.

History, Culture & Politics of Haiti
Davis, Wade. The Serpent and the Rainbow. 
BL2530 .H3 D38 1985
Davis is a Harvard ethnobiologist hired by pharmaceutical companies to discover the plant and animal substances that Voodoo priests use to induce zombification. The author explores Voodoo: the rituals, the true medicinal power of voodoo potions, and gives an external account of the power of voodoo magic. Davis' story is a personal account, not a scientific one, but his outside perspective on an intimate religion is informative.

Dubois, Laurent. Avengers of the New World: The Story of the Haitian Revolution.
F1923 .D83 2004
An account of the only successful slave revolution in history, begun in Saint-Domingue, Haiti, in 1791, and the conditions of slavery under the French. The book explains how the Haitian revolution was being fanned by the French Revolution occurring simultaneously. He also gives an account of the revolution's leader, the "Black Napoleon," Toussaint Louverture. This book tells the beginning of the story of Haiti's struggle for independence.

Dupay, Alex. Haiti in the New World Order: The Limits of the Democratic Revolution. 
F1928.2 .D86 1997
Recommended by Choice for it's assessment of Haitian Politics, this book covers the period 1986 to 1994. It has a helpful chronology of the U.S. involvement in the in the years 1991- 1994, and provides a well-documented evaluation of Aristide's religious, social and political thought.

Ferguson, James. Papa Doc, Baby Doc: Haiti and the Duvaliers.
F1928 .F47 1987
An account of life during the rule of "Papa Doc" and "Baby Doc," the Duvalier dictators who forcibly controlled Haiti from 1957 to 1986. Ferguson gives a short history of Haiti, uses eyewitness reports to describe life under the Duvaliers, and finally gives an account of the fall of "Baby Doc" and the aftermath.

Gold, Herbert. Haiti: Best Nightmare on Earth.
F1917 .G65 2001
Gold gives a personal account of his travels to Haiti spanning 37 years. His story includes experiences with Voodoo rituals, dinner with Duvalier leaders, run-ins with the Ton tons Macoutes, and descriptions of the art and music of Haiti.

"Haiti's Dilemma" CQ Researcher 18 Feb. 2005: 149-171. Reserves
A special issue that covers current issues, historical background, a chronology 1791 - 2005, the current situation, the issue of Haitian refugees being granted Temporary Protected Status, the outlook, web sites and a bibliography.

Hall, Robert A., Jr. Haitian Creole: Grammar, Texts, Vocabulary. 
PM7854 .H3 H35
Hall provides a comprehensive guide to Haitian Creole. He describes its roots in French and African language and its grammatical rules. Though this book is old, it provides a solid understanding of the structure and vocabulary of Haitian Creole. 

Hermann, Bernard. Haiti. 
F1915 .H4713
Hermann is a French photojournalist, and Michael Montas, who wrote the text, is a Columbia University-educated journalist born and raised in Port-au-Prince. Though the book itself is no anthropological masterpiece, all 128 pages provide full page, vividly colored photographs of the landscapes and people of Haiti. The text includes a description of Haiti's history, traditions, and culture as of 1975. If you want to see the color of Haiti, this is the book you are looking for.

"How Haiti Lost Its Trees." CQ Researcher 18 Feb. 2005: 163.
A look at the environmental conditions in Haiti. 

Hurston, Zora Neale. Tell My Horse: Voodoo and Life in Haiti and Jamaica. 
BL2490 .H88 1990 c.2
Hurston gives first hand accounts of the rituals and daily life of Haiti and Jamaica. Her information comes from visits to both countries in which she participated in these cultures during the 1930s to record their mythology and history. Her stories dispel the bad rap voodoo religion often gets, showing it instead as a beautiful tradition older than Christianity or Islam. She writes about folklore, traditions, politics, and the daily life of Haitians.

Kaimowitz, David. "The Great Flood Myth." New Scientist 19 June 2004: 18.
A discussion of the effect of cutting down trees in relation to recent flooding in Haiti.

Kurlansky, Mark. A Continent of Islands: Searching for the Caribbean Destiny. 
F2161 .K87 1992
Mark Kurlansky, a journalist who has covered the Caribbean for The New York Times and the Chicago Tribune, discovers the many issues that divide and unite the Caribbean in modern times. Kurlansky discusses the ravaging effects of AIDS, deforestation, and political upheaval in the islands. He provides a thorough understanding of the history of the Caribbean and its current state in terms of the need to unite these struggling islands in order to benefit them all.

Meehan, Kevin. " 'Titid ak pep la se marasa': Jean-Bertrand Aristide and the New National Romance in Haiti." Caribbean Romances: The Politics of Regional Representation. Ed. Belinda J. Edmondson.
F2169 .C368 1999. 105-122.
Edmondson collects political romances, representations of ideological regions or political situations, of Caribbean countries. The chapter on Haiti discusses the romantic ideal of Jean-Bertrand Aristide's marriage to the people of Haiti. This relationship is depicted in Haitian literature and was evident even before Aristide officially took power. The Haitian people have been romanced by ideals in literature and in Aristide's devotion to them, and Edmondson discusses the importance of this romance to the realities Haitians must face.

Nicholls, David. From Dessalines to Duvalier: Race, Colour and National Independence in Haiti. 
F1924 .N52 1996
A political history, that delves into the complex issues of race within Haiti since 1804 when Haiti became independent of France and Dessaline was named Emperor Jacques I. The scholarly coverage ends with the year 1971 when François Duvalier died.

Payne, Anthony. International Crisis in the Caribbean. 
F2183 .P39 1984
This book, although a bit outdated, provides a source about the political status of the Caribbean islands. It includes a discussion of Cuba as a menace or a model, and a briefer section on military involvement in Haiti and the dictatorship that dominated there. International Crisis is single-authored and in simple terms describes the situations that led to crises in many Caribbean countries similar to Haiti.

Payne, Anthony and Paul Sutton. Modern Caribbean Politics. 
F2183 .M63 1993
Modern Caribbean Politics collects the political stories of each Caribbean country, and discusses the current issues important to that country. The chapter on Haiti is titled "The Duvalier Dictatorship and Its Legacy of Crisis in Haiti." This section describes the coups, countercoups, farcical elections, and the causes and ramifications of these during and after the Duvalier's rule. It also speculates as to the future of Haiti.

Regan, Jane. "Haiti: Nearly Half of Population Hungry." NACLA Report on the Americas Jan.-Feb. 2004:44-45. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Otterbein University Library. <search.ebscohost.com>.
A report on the state of the poor from the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization under the rule and policies of Aristide.

Smith, Jennie M. When Hands are Many: Community Organization and Social Change in Rural Haiti. HD 1531 .H2 D55
An ethnography of two strong traditions in Haiti, a song called chante pwen and "peasant groups." Peasants in Haiti refer to agricultural people who live on small plots of land that they own, and who sell their products in rural and urban markets. The study was done on the tip of Haiti's Southwestern peninsula by a professor of Anthropology at Berry University.

Valdman, Albert. Pidgin and Creole Linguistics.
PM7802 .P48
This book devotes a section to discussing the difference between Haitian Creole and its root languages, French and African. It defines the linguistic significance of Haitian Creole, and other Pidgin and Creole languages which are completely unique.

Wilentz, Amy. The Rainy Season: Haiti since Duvalier. 
F1928 .2 .W55 1990
Wilentz provides a concise and comprehensive description of the state of Haiti since "Baby Doc" Duvalier stepped down in 1986. The book is an introduction to the politics, culture, and daily life of Haitians, taken from first hand experience. Wilentz writes from her own experience of Haiti in a period of time which coincidentally includes the same years Farmer first visited and fell in love with the country.

The World Factbook. 2004. Ref G122 .W67 2004
A quick reference for finding current information, maps, and statistics about Haiti, Peru, Russia, Rwanda and other countries around the world.

Wucker, Michele. "Haiti: So Many Missteps." World Policy Journal 21.1 (2004): 41-49. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Otterbein University Library. <search.ebscohost.com>.
Provides an update on the political and economic climate in Haiti, and the conflicts that caused Aristide to be removed from office, and comments about the approach of the U. S. government to the problems.

Zéphir, Flore. The Haitian Americans. Ref E184 .H27 Z458 2004
The author is an immigrant from Haiti and has done fieldwork on Haitian communities, and the problems they have faced, their achievements and biographical profiles of Haitian Americans. 

What you can do to help
Corporation of National and Community Service. AmeriCorps
AmeriCorps is a network of many volunteer organizations: non-profit, public agencies, and faith-based. These service programs allow volunteers to work in any field: health, education, environment or organizations like Habitat for Humanity. Americorps works to solve the problem of poverty within the United States with the help of volunteers and donors.

Doctors Without Borders. Doctors Without Borders/ Medicins Sans Frontieres
Doctors Without Borders works to get medical help to the frontlines of war and poverty. Their web site includes news about the doctors within the organization and what they are doing, information about the diseases that are reaching epidemic proportions such as malaria, TB, and HIV/AIDS, and news of the places where these doctors are needed most, such as the Republic of Congo and Haiti.

Jones, Ellis, et al. The Better World Handbook: From Good Intentions to Everyday Actions. 
HM831 .J664 2001
Suggestions for living a better life within the global community. The authors suggest you don't have to be a saint to take meaningful action. Listen to them.

Partners in Health. Partners in Health: Health Care for the Poor
Partners in Health's web site provides information on their current activities such as their new endeavors into Africa, news relevant to their mission, information about the issues they work with like AIDS and social inequity, and what you can do to help.

Peace Corps. Home Page
The Peace Corps web site is an excellent source for those who want to assist in the fight against global poverty in their area of expertise. The web site includes information about what the Peace Corps is, how and why to volunteer, and resources for teachers, students, and those who want to donate to the cause. The web site also provides personal stories of those who have volunteered for the Peace Corps and how it changed their lives.

United Nations. Human Development Report & Ref HD72 .H85...
The UN publishes the Human Development report to keep us updated on the state of poverty in the world. Their web site includes statistics on poverty in the countries surveyed, information on the fight for debt relief of poor countries, and the development reports for poor countries from 1990 to 2005. The most current report is also available in the Reference area of the library. The 2003 edition discusses the Millennium Development Compact to end Human poverty and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS.
HD72 .H85 2003

World Health Organization. 
The WHO's web site is a good source for understanding what is being done about some of the worst health problems today. Click on the WHO SITES to see web sites specific to different diseases and task forces, for instance the database on global multi-drug-resistant TB research activities, an HIV/AIDS site, and publications related to any of these topics.

Questions? Contact Click here , Reference Librarian